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الموضوع: ماذا تعرف عن محركات الديزل؟

  1. #1
    عضو سوبر الصورة الرمزية blue chevy
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    ماذا تعرف عن محركات الديزل؟



    هلا شباب
    انا آسف اني بحط موضوعي باللغة الانجليزية
    بس هذا إلي موجود على الجهاز
    وإلي ما يعرف معناة جمله يقولي

    مقدمة عن دورة محركات الديزل

    The Diesel Cycle


    Rudolf Diesel developed the idea for the diesel engine and obtained the German patent for it in 1892. His goal was to create an engine with high efficiency. Gasoline engines had been invented in 1876 and, especially at that time, were not very efficient.
    The main differences between the gasoline engine and the diesel engine are:
    A gasoline engine intakes a mixture of gas and air, compresses it and ignites the mixture with a spark. A diesel engine takes in just air, compresses it and then injects fuel into the compressed air. The heat of the compressed air lights the fuel spontaneously.
    A gasoline engine compresses at a ratio of 8:1 to 12:1, while a diesel engine compresses at a ratio of 14:1 to as high as 25:1. The higher compression ratio of the diesel engine leads to better efficiency.
    Gasoline engines generally use either carburetion, in which the air and fuel is mixed long before the air enters the cylinder, or port fuel injection, in which the fuel is injected just prior to the intake stroke (outside the cylinder). Diesel engines use direct fuel injection -- the diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder
    Note that the diesel engine has no spark plug, that it intakes air and compresses it, and that it then injects the fuel directly into the combustion chamber (direct injection). It is the heat of the compressed air that lights the fuel in a diesel engine.

    Direct Injection

    The injector on a diesel engine is its most complex component and has been the subject of a great deal of experimentation -- in any particular engine it may be located in a variety of places. The injector has to be able to withstand the temperature and pressure inside the cylinder and still deliver the fuel in a fine mist. Getting the mist circulated in the cylinder so that it is evenly distributed is also a problem, so some diesel engines employ special induction valves, pre-combustion chambers or other devices to swirl the air in the combustion chamber or otherwise improve the ignition and combustion process.
    One big difference between a diesel engine and a gas engine is in the injection process. Most car engines use port injection or a carburetor rather than direct injection. In a car engine, therefore, all of the fuel is loaded into the cylinder during the intake stroke and then compressed. The compression of the fuel/air mixture limits the compression ratio of the engine -- if it compresses the air too much, the fuel/air mixture spontaneously ignites and causes knocking. A diesel compresses only air, so the compression ratio can be much higher. The higher the compression ratio, the more power is generated.
    Some diesel engines contain a glow plug of some sort (not shown in this figure). When a diesel engine is cold, the compression process may not raise the air to a high enough temperature to ignite the fuel. The glow plug is an electrically heated wire (think of the hot wires you see in a toaster) that helps ignite the fuel when the engine is cold so that the engine can start. According to Clay Brotherton, a Journeyman heavy equipment technician:
    All functions in a modern engine are controlled by the ECM communicating with an elaborate set of sensors measuring everything from R.P.M. to engine coolant and oil temperatures and even engine position (i.e. T.D.C.). Glow plugs are rarely used today on larger engines. The ECM senses ambient air temperature and retards the timing of the engine in cold weather so the injector sprays the fuel at a later time. The air in the cylinder is compressed more, creating more heat, which aids in starting.

    يا شباب لا احد يرد إلا لما اقول انتهى لأني قاعد اضبط بالموضوع وألونه علشان لا تزهقون من القراءه


    لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله



  2. #2
    عضو سوبر الصورة الرمزية blue chevy
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    رد: ماذا تعرف عن محركات الديزل؟



    Diesel Fuel



    If you have ever compared diesel fuel and gasoline, you know that they are different. They certainly smell different. Diesel fuel is heavier and oilier. Diesel fuel evaporates much more slowly than gasoline -- its boiling point is actually higher than the boiling point of water. You will often hear diesel fuel referred to as "diesel oil" because it is so oily.

    Diesel fuel evaporates more slowly because it is heavier. It contains more carbon atoms in longer chains than gasoline does (gasoline is typically C9H20, while diesel fuel is typically C14H30). It takes less refining to create diesel fuel, which is why it is generally cheaper than gasoline.
    Diesel fuel has a higher energy density than gasoline. On average, 1 gallon (3.8 L) of diesel fuel contains approximately 155x106 joules (147,000 BTU), while 1 gallon of gasoline contains 132x106 joules (125,000 BTU). This, combined with the improved efficiency of diesel engines, explains why diesel engines get better mileage than equivalent gasoline engines.

    What is the difference between gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, etc.?

    The "crude oil" pumped out of the ground is a black liquid called petroleum. This liquid contains aliphatic hydrocarbons, or hydrocarbons composed of nothing but hydrogen and carbon. The carbon atoms link together in chains of different lengths.
    It turns out that hydrocarbon molecules of different lengths have different properties and behaviors. For example, a chain with just one carbon atom in it (CH4) is the lightest chain, known as methane. Methane is a gas so light that it floats like helium. As the chains get longer, they get heavier.
    The first four chains -- CH4 (methane), C2H6 (ethane), C3H8 (propane) and C4H10 (butane) -- are all gases, and they boil at -161, -88, -46 and -1 degrees F, respectively (-107, -67, -43 and -18 degrees C). The chains up through C18H32 or so are all liquids at room temperature, and the chains above C19 are all solids at room temperature.
    The different chain lengths have progressively higher boiling points, so they can be separated out by distillation. This is what happens in an oil refinery -- crude oil is heated and the different chains are pulled out by their vaporization temperatures.
    The chains in the C5, C6 and C7 range are all very light, easily vaporized, clear liquids called naphthas. They are used as solvents -- dry cleaning fluids can be made from these liquids, as well as paint solvents and other quick-drying products.
    The chains from C7H16 through C11H24 are blended together and used for gasoline. All of them vaporize at temperatures below the boiling point of water. That's why if you spill gasoline on the ground it evaporates very quickly.
    Next is kerosene, in the C12 to C15 range, followed by diesel fuel and heavier fuel oils (like heating oil for houses).
    Next come the lubricating oils. These oils no longer vaporize in any way at normal temperatures. For example, engine oil can run all day at 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) without vaporizing at all. Oils go from very light (like 3-in-1 oil) through various thicknesses of motor oil through very thick gear oils and then semi-solid greases. Vasoline falls in there as well.
    Chains above the C20 range form solids, starting with paraffin wax, then tar and finally asphaltic bitumen, which used to make asphalt roads.
    All of these different substances come from crude oil. The only difference is the length of the carbon chains!

  3. #3
    عضو سوبر الصورة الرمزية blue chevy
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    رد: ماذا تعرف عن محركات الديزل؟

    هني يتكلم عن الاشواط الاربعه في محرك الديزل

    The basic four-stroke cycle diesel engine


    From the name it's fairly obvious that there are 4 strokes in one complete engine cycle, a stroke is the movement of the piston through the full length of the cylinder.
    The 4 strokes are as follow:
    1- The inlet stroke:
    The inlet valve open and the exhaust valve closed, the piston moves from TDC to BDC.
    2- The compression stroke:
    The both valves closed, the piston moves from BDC to TDC, compressing the air.
    3- The power stroke:
    At approximately TDC, the fuel is injected, into the hot compressed air, both valves closed, the piston moves from TDC to BDC.
    4- The exhaust stroke:
    The exhaust valve open and the inlet valve close, the piston moves from BDC to TDC driving the burnt gas from the cylinder through the open exhaust valve.

    وهذي صورة توضح طريقة عمل الاشواط الاربعه بداية دخول الهواء من اليسار إلى شوط العادم


  4. #4
    عضو سوبر الصورة الرمزية blue chevy
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    رد: ماذا تعرف عن محركات الديزل؟

    The combustion process


    The time during which the fuel vaporizes and ignites is dependent on three factors:
    1- The difference between the air temp and the self-ignition temp of the fuel:
    If the air temp is much higher than the fuel self-ignition temp the fuel will vaporise and ignite quickly.
    2- The pressure in the combustion champer:
    The greater the pressure the more intimate the contact between the cold fuel and the hot air will be the closer the contact between these two the greater will be the rate of the heat transfer from one to the other.
    3- The fineness of the fuel particles:
    For complete combustion, good depth of penetration of fuel particles into the combustion chamber is necessary, and the particles must have sufficient mass to carry them deep into the compressed air.

    The stages of combustion:
    1- Delay period: this is the period of crank-shaft rotation between the start of injection and first ignition of the fuel charge, during this time, fuel is being injected continuously.
    2- Uncontrolled combustion: once ignition of the fuel in the combustion chamber begins, all the fuel that has accumulated during the delay period very rapidly, giving a sudden pressure rise.
    3- Controlled combustion: when the uncontrolled combustion stops, the fuel burns as it is injected into the combustion chamber, the rate of admission of the fuel giving accurate control of the cylinder pressure, immediate combustion of the fuel as it is injected during the controlled combustion period is ensured by the heat and pressure generated during the uncontrolled combustion period.
    4- after-burning: during the controlled combustion period, almost all the fuel burns, however, some fuel particles fail to find the necessary air for combustion during this stage of combustion and these again, some of the particles of fuel that settled on the combustion chamber walls during injection evaporate and burn during this final stage. (After burning)

    وهذي صورة مبسطه لمحرك الديزل


  5. #5
    عضو سوبر الصورة الرمزية blue chevy
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    رد: ماذا تعرف عن محركات الديزل؟

    هني يتكلم عن محركات الديزل ثنائية الاشواط



    Two-stroke diesel

    At the top of the cylinder are typically two or four exhaust valves that all open at the same time. There is also the diesel fuel injector. The piston is elongated, as in a gasoline two-stroke engine, so that it can act as the intake valve. At the bottom of the piston's travel, the piston uncovers the ports for air intake. The intake air is pressurized by a turbocharger or a supercharger. The crankcase is sealed and contains oil as in a four-stroke engine.



    The two-stroke diesel cycle goes like this



    1. When the piston is at the top of its travel, the cylinder contains a charge of highly compressed air. Diesel fuel is sprayed into the cylinder by the injector and immediately ignites because of the heat and pressure inside the cylinder. The pressure created by the combustion of the fuel drives the piston downward. This is the power stroke.
    2. As the piston nears the bottom of its stroke, all of the exhaust valves open. Exhaust gases rush out of the cylinder, relieving the pressure.
    3. As the piston bottoms out, it uncovers the air intake ports. Pressurized air fills the cylinder, forcing out the remainder of the exhaust gases.
    4. The exhaust valves close and the piston starts traveling back upward, re-covering the intake ports and compressing the fresh charge of air. This is the compression stroke.
    5. As the piston nears the top of the cylinder, the cycle repeats with step 1.
    From this de******ion, you can see the big difference between a diesel two-stroke engine and a gasoline two-stroke engine: In the diesel version, only air fills the cylinder, rather than gas and air mixed together. This means that a diesel two-stroke engine suffers from none of the environmental problems that plague a gasoline two-stroke engine.




  6. #6
    عضو سوبر الصورة الرمزية blue chevy
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    رد: ماذا تعرف عن محركات الديزل؟

    Diesel knock



    The sudden pressure rise during the uncontrolled combustion period causes a shock wave to spread throughout the combustion chamber, when this wave strikes the metal of the cylinder head or piton crown, a characteristic metallic knock is audible, this being known as diesel knock.


    If diesel engines are more efficient, why do most cars have gasoline engines?



    Diesel engines have never really caught on in passenger cars. During the late 1970's, diesel engines in passenger cars did see a surge in sales because of the OPEC oil embargo (over half a million were sold in the U.S.), but that is the only significant penetration that diesel engines have made in the marketplace. Even though they are more efficient, there are eight historical problems that have held diesel engines back:
    1. Diesel engines, because they have much higher compression ratios (20:1 for a typical diesel vs. 8:1 for a typical gasoline engine), tend to be heavier than an equivalent gasoline engine.
    2. Diesel engines also tend to be more expensive.
    3. Diesel engines, because of the weight and compression ratio, tend to have lower maximum RPM ranges than gasoline engines. This makes diesel engines high torque rather than high horsepower, and that tends to make diesel cars slow in terms of acceleration.
    4. Diesel engines must be fuel injected, and in the past fuel injection was expensive and less reliable
    5. Diesel engines tend to produce more smoke.
    6. Diesel engines are harder to start in cold weather, and if they contain glow plugs, diesel engines can require you to wait before starting the engine so the glow plugs can heat up.
    7. Diesel engines are much noisier and tend to vibrate.
    8. Diesel fuel is less readily available than gasoline
    One or two of these disadvantages would be OK, but a group of disadvantages this large is a big deterrent for lots of people.
    The two things working in favor of diesel engines are better fuel economy and longer engine life. Both of these advantages mean that, over the life of the engine, you will tend to save money with a diesel. However, you also have to take the initial high cost of the engine into account. You have to own and operate a diesel engine for a fairly long time before the fuel economy overcomes the increased purchase price of the engine. The equation works great in a big diesel tractor-trailer rig that is running 400 miles every day, but it is not nearly so beneficial in a passenger car.
    As mentioned, the list above contains historical disadvantages for diesel engines. Many of the new diesel engine designs using advanced computer control are eliminating many of these disadvantages -- smoke, noise, vibration and cost are all declining. In the future, we are likely to see many more diesel engines on the road.

  7. #7
    عضو سوبر الصورة الرمزية blue chevy
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    رد: ماذا تعرف عن محركات الديزل؟

    شوفوا صورة داينو لمحرك الديزل
    تلاحظون فرق العزم مع الاحصنه


  8. #8
    عضو سوبر الصورة الرمزية blue chevy
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    رد: ماذا تعرف عن محركات الديزل؟

    وهني راح نتعرف على عملية السوبرجارجنج

    Superchargers


    How superchargers Work
    When people talk about race cars or high-performance sports cars, the topic of superchargers usually comes up. Turbochargers also appear on large diesel engines. A turbo can significantly boost an engine's horsepower without significantly increasing its weight, which is the huge benefit that makes superchargers so popular!

    What Is a Turbocharger?

    Turbochargers are a type of forced induction system. They compress the air flowing into the engine. The advantage of compressing the air is that it lets the engine squeeze more air into a cylinder, and more air means that more fuel can be added. Therefore, you get more power from each explosion in each cylinder. A turbocharged engine produces more power overall than the same engine without the charging. This can significantly improve the power-to-weight ratio for the engine .
    In order to achieve this boost, the turbocharger uses the exhaust flow from the engine to spin a turbine, which in turn spins an air pump. The turbine in the turbocharger spins at speeds of up to 150,000 rotations per minute (rpm) -- that's about 30 times faster than most car engines can go. And since it is hooked up to the exhaust, the temperatures in the turbine are also very high.
    Basics
    One of the surest ways to get more power out of an engine is to increase the amount of air and fuel that it can burn. One way to do this is to add cylinders or make the current cylinders bigger. Sometimes these changes may not be feasible -- a turbo can be a simpler, more compact way to add power, especially for an aftermarket accessory.

    Turbochargers allow an engine to burn more fuel and air by packing more into the existing cylinders. The typical boost provided by a turbocharger is 6 to 8 pounds per square inch (psi). Since normal atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi at sea level, you can see that you are getting about 50 percent more air into the engine. Therefore, you would expect to get 50 percent more power. It's not perfectly efficient, so you might get a 30- to 40-percent improvement instead.
    One cause of the inefficiency comes from the fact that the power to spin the turbine is not free. Having a turbine in the exhaust flow increases the restriction in the exhaust. This means that on the exhaust stroke, the engine has to push against a higher back-pressure. This subtracts a little bit of power from the cylinders that are firing at the same time.

    Turbos on High


    A turbocharger helps at high altitudes, where the air is less dense. Normal engines will experience reduced power at high altitudes because for each stroke of the piston, the engine will get a smaller mass of air. A turbocharged engine may also have reduced power, but the reduction will be less dramatic because the thinner air is easier for the turbocharger to pump.
    Older cars with carburetors automatically increase the fuel rate to match the increased airflow going into the cylinders. Modern cars with fuel injection will also do this to a point. The fuel-injection system relies on oxygen sensors in the exhaust to determine if the air-to-fuel ratio is correct, so these systems will automatically increase the fuel flow if a turbo is added.
    If a turbocharger with too much boost is added to a fuel-injected car, the system may not provide enough fuel -- either the software programmed into the controller will not allow it, or the pump and injectors are not capable of supplying it. In this case, other modifications will have to be made to get the maximum benefit from the turbocharger.


    How It Works

    The turbocharger is bolted to the exhaust manifold of the engine. The exhaust from the cylinders spins the turbine, which works like a gas turbine engine. The turbine is connected by a shaft to the compressor, which is located between the air filter and the intake manifold. The compressor pressurizes the air going into the pistons.
    The exhaust from the cylinders passes through the turbine blades, causing the turbine to spin. The more exhaust that goes through the blades, the faster they spin.
    On the other end of the shaft that the turbine is attached to, the compressor pumps air into the cylinders. The compressor is a type of centrifugal pump -- it draws air in at the center of its blades and flings it outward as it spins.
    In order to handle speeds of up to 150,000 rpm, the turbine shaft has to be supported very carefully. Most bearings would explode at speeds like this, so most turbochargers use a fluid bearing. This type of bearing supports the shaft on a thin layer of oil that is constantly pumped around the shaft. This serves two purposes: It cools the shaft and some of the other turbocharger parts, and it allows the shaft to spin without much friction.
    There are many tradeoffs involved in designing a turbocharger for an engine. In the next section, we'll look at some of these compromises and see how they affect performance.
    Supercharging is used in various four stroke engine in the following main cases:
    a- To overcome the effect of high altitude, such as in aircraft engine.
    b- To reduce the weight of the engine per horsepower developed such as in air craft and car racing.
    c- To reduce the bulk of engine, to fit it into the limited space such as marine engine.
    d- To increase the power of an existing engine when a greater power demand occurs.

    Blower

    Reciprocating piston blower are seldom used because they are bulkier, more expensive, and less dependable then blowers of the rotary type.
    Roots blower are used with tow or three lobes, with cylindrical or helical surfaces. The three lobes and helical surfaces are used to obtain amore uniform no pulsating flow of air.
    Turbocharger
    The turbo is made up of three section, the centre bearing housing assembly, the turbine housing and the compressor housing, as chow fig 19.2 .

    In general terms, there are tow types of turbocharger – the pulse type and the constant pressure type – each with its own operating characteristics. However, both operate in the same basic way

    Optional Turbo Features

    The Waste gate

    most automotive turbochargers have a waste gate, which allows the use of a smaller turbocharger to reduce lag while preventing it from spinning too quickly at high engine speeds. The waste gate is a valve that allows the exhaust to bypass the turbine blades. The waste gate senses the boost pressure. If the pressure gets too high, it could be an indicator that the turbine is spinning too quickly, so the waste gate bypasses some of the exhaust around the turbine blades, allowing the blades to slow down.


    Ball Bearings

    Some turbochargers use ball bearings instead of fluid bearings to support the turbine shaft. But these are not your regular ball bearings -- they are super-precise bearings made of advanced materials to handle the speeds and temperatures of the turbocharger. They allow the turbine shaft to spin with less friction than the fluid bearings used in most turbochargers. They also allow a slightly smaller, lighter shaft to be used. This helps the turbocharger accelerate more quickly, further reducing turbo lag.


    Ceramic Turbine Blades
    Ceramic turbine blades are lighter than the steel blades used in most turbochargers. Again, this allows the turbine to spin up to speed faster, which reduces turbo lag.
    Sequential Turbochargers
    Some engines use two turbochargers of different sizes. The smaller one spins up to speed very quickly, reducing lag, while the bigger one takes over at higher engine speeds to provide more boost.

    Design Considerations

    before we talk about the design tradeoffs, we need to talk about some of the possible problems with turbochargers that the designers must take into account.


    Too Much Boost

    With air being pumped into the cylinders under pressure by the turbocharger, and then being further compressed by the piston (see How Car Engines Work for a demonstration), there is more danger of knock. Knocking happens because as you compress air, the temperature of the air increases. The temperature may increase enough to ignite the fuel before the spark plug fires. Cars with turbochargers often need to run on higher octane fuel to avoid knock. If the boost pressure is really high, the compression ratio of the engine may have to be reduced to avoid knocking.


    Turbo Lag


    one of the main problems with turbochargers is that they do not provide an immediate power boost when you step on the gas. It takes a second for the turbine to get up to speed before boost is produced. This results in a feeling of lag when you step on the gas, and then the car lunges ahead when the turbo gets moving.
    One way to decrease turbo lag is to reduce the inertia of the rotating parts, mainly by reducing their weight. This allows the turbine and compressor to accelerate quickly, and start providing boost earlier.


    Small vs. Large Turbocharger

    One sure way to reduce the inertia of the turbine and compressor is to make the turbocharger smaller. A small turbocharger will provide boost more quickly and at lower engine speeds, but may not be able to provide much boost at higher engine speeds when a really large volume of air is going into the engine. It is also in danger of spinning too quickly at higher engine speeds, when lots of exhaust is passing through the turbine.
    A large turbocharger can provide lots of boost at high engine speeds, but may have bad turbo lag because of how long it takes to accelerate its heavier turbine and compressor


    Intercoolers

    when air is compressed, it heats up; and when air heats up, it expands. So some of the pressure increase from a turbocharger is the result of heating the air before it goes into the engine. In order to increase the power of the engine, the goal is to get more air molecules into the cylinder, not necessarily more air pressure. An intercooler or charge air cooler is an additional component that looks something like a radiator, except air passes through the inside as well as the outside of the intercooler. The intake air passes through sealed passageways inside the cooler, while cooler air from outside is blown across fins by the engine cooling fan.
    The intercooler further increases the power of the engine by cooling the pressurized air coming out of the compressor before it goes into the engine. This means that if the turbocharger is operating at a boost of 7 psi, the intercooled system will put in 7 psi of cooler air, which is denser and contains more air molecules than warmer air.

    What is the difference between a turbocharger and a supercharger on a car's engine?

    Let's start with the similarities. Both turbochargers and superchargers are called forced induction systems. They compress the air flowing into the engine. The advantage of compressing the air is that it lets the engine stuff more air into a cylinder. More air means that more fuel can be stuffed in, too, so you get more power from each explosion in each cylinder. A turbo/supercharged engine produces more power overall than the same engine without the charging.
    The typical boost provided by either a turbocharger or a supercharger is 6 to 8 pounds per square inch (psi). Since normal atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi at sea level, you can see that you are getting about 50-percent more air into the engine. Therefore, you would expect to get 50-percent more power. It's not perfectly efficient, though, so you might get a 30-percent to 40-percent improvement instead.
    The key difference between a turbocharger and a supercharger is its power supply. Something has to supply the power to run the air compressor. In a supercharger, there is a belt that connects directly to the engine. It gets its power the same way that the water pump or alternator does. A turbocharger, on the other hand, gets its power from the exhaust stream. The exhaust runs through a turbine, which in turn spins the compressor.
    There are tradeoffs in both systems. In theory, a turbocharger is more efficient because it is using the "wasted" energy in the exhaust stream for its power source. On the other hand, a turbocharger causes some amount of back pressure in the exhaust system and tends to provide less boost until the engine is running at higher RPMs. Superchargers are easier to install but tend to be more expensive.

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